Azerbaijani for beginners – 2


There is no grammatical gender in Azerbaijani. The pronoun o and endings associated with it can mean he/she/it.


There are no articles, although the word bir (“one”) can be used as an indefinite article:
bir kitab “a book”.

In other cases, the definiteness or indefiniteness of an article has to be guessed from the context:
çay ucuzdur – “the tea is cheap” *or* “tea is cheap”


The plural suffix is -lar for back-vowel words, and -lər for front vowel words.

kitab-lar – book-s
ev-lər – house-s

When a singular word stands for things in general, such as in the expressions reading books, writing letters, etc the plural noun in English is translated as a singular in Azerbaijani:

kitab oxuyuram – I am reading books/a book
məktub yazıram – I am writing letters/a letter
(another example from Google: mən bütün oğlanlara məktub yazıram. – I am writing letters to all the boys)

Similarly, when preceded by a number or other quantity word, the noun is in the singular:

iki qələm – two pens
çox kitab oxuyuram – I read many books

Noun cases

There are six cases in Azerbaijani: Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative (or definite direct object case), Locative, and Ablative. These will be covered in more detail below, but for now the endings:

 Nominative  (no ending)
 Genitive  (n)ın (possession – kişi-nin maşını “the man-‘s car”)
 Dative  (y)a (motion towards – ev-ə “to-the house”)
 Accusative  (n)ı (definite direct objects – məktub-u yazdı “he wrote the letter”)
 Locative  da (shows where an object is located – ev-də “in the house”)
 Ablative  dan (motion away from – ev-dən “from the house”)

Nominative case generally marks the subject or an indefinite object in a sentence. To mark a definite direct object, the case ending -(n)ı is used (from now on 4-way harmonizing suffixes will only be given with “ı”, and 2-way harmonizing suffixes with “a”.)

çay içirəm – I am drinking tea.
çayı içirəm – I am drinking *the* tea

After nouns ending in a consonant, the ending is simply tacked on:

 kitab-ı  (the) book
 ev-i  the house
 top-u  the ball
 gül-ü  the flower

For words ending in a vowel, the buffer consonant -n- is added:

meyvəni yeyirəm – I eat *the* fruit
lampanı alıram – I am buying the lamp

There is one major exception – the word su “water” which takes the buffer consonant -y-:

suyu içdim – I drank the water.

Other “exceptions” are nouns where a final vowel disappears when a case ending beginning in a vowel is added:

şəkil picture → şəkl-i
burun nose → burn-u

These will be noted as they appear.


 mən  I
 sən  you (familiar singular)
 o  he/she/it
 biz  we
 siz  you (polite singular or plural)
 onlar  they

Since verbs conjugate according to person, personal pronouns are often not used.

(Mən) kitab oxuyuram. – I am reading a book.

The definite direct object case of the pronouns is formed just like other nouns:
məni, səni, onu, bizi, sizi, onları

 məni gördün  you saw me
 səni çağırdım  I invited you

Locative Case -da

As the name suggests, this case shows where an object is located:

 stolda  on the table
 məktəbdə  at the school
 evdə  in the house/at home

As you can see, this single prefix takes the place of the various locative prepositions in English.

The plural suffix always comes before other suffixes, so:

 ev-lər-də  in (the) houses
 maşın-lar-da  in the cars


 kitab  book
 top  ball
 gül  flower
 çay  tea
 qələm  pen
 məktub  letter, missive
 meyvə  fruit
 lampa  lamp
 su  water
 maşın  car
 alma  apple
 şəkil  picture
 quş  bird
 daş  stone
 üzük  ring
 ev  house
 bıçaq  knife
 ürək  heart
 stol  table
 mənzil  apartment


Exercise A: Put the correct plural ending on the nouns below:
1) quş (bird)
2) daş (stone)
3) üzük (ring)
4) ev (house)
5) bıçaq (knife)
6) ürək (heart)
7) stol (table)
8) mənzil (apartment)

Exercise B: Do the same with the locative suffix.

Exercise C: Complete the sentences below by putting the nouns in the definite direct object case:
1) mən_ çağırdı – He invited me.
2) maşın_ satdıq – We sold the car.
3) şəkil_ çəkdim – I took the picture (exception).
4) alma_ yedim – I ate the apple.


After you’ve done the exercises you can check whether your answer is correct using the following solutions:

Solution of Exercise A:
1) quşlar
2) daşlar
3) üzüklər
4) evlər
5) bıçaqlar
6) ürəklər
7) stollar
8) mənzillər

Solution of Exercise B:
1) quşda
2) daşda
3) üzükdə
4) evdə
5) bıçaqda
6) ürəkdə
7) stolda
8) mənzildə

Solution of Exercise C:
1) məni çağırdıHe invited me.
2) maşını satdıqWe sold the car.
3) şəkli çəkdimI took the picture (exception).
4) almanı yedimI ate the apple.

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